Did you adopt your dog dreaming of taking long walks together, but instead ended up not being able to take them outside without fearing the worst?

If taking your dog for a walk is a nightmare with your dog lunging, barking, or even becoming aggressive towards other dogs, people, and objects when they are restrained by a leash… your dog is leash reactive.

You are not alone. Leash reactivity is a common issue that many rescue dog owners struggle with. This can involve one or more behaviors such as barking, growling, and lunging toward triggers like other dogs, people, or cars.

Understanding leash reactivity can help you manage and fix your dog’s behavior and make your walks more enjoyable. Let’s start with the “why”:

Two Leash Reactive Dogs lunging at each other

Why is My Dog Leash Reactive?

One of the main causes of leash reactivity is a dog’s fear or anxiety, which can be a result of a lack of socialization or a previous negative experience while on a leash.

If your dog is in discomfort or pain from a poorly fitted harness or collar can contribute to leash reactivity.

It’s important to understand the underlying reasons for your dog’s behavior, as this will help you address the issue more effectively.

Identifying your dog’s triggers

To tackle leash reactivity, it’s essential to first identify the specific triggers that cause your dog to react. Some common triggers include:

  • Other dogs: Leash reactivity often arises from your dog’s response to other dogs. This could be due to a lack of proper socialization or previous negative experiences with other dogs.
  • People: Similarly, dogs can be leash-reactive to people, either due to fear, mistrust, or territorial behavior.
  • Cars and other moving objects: Some dogs may feel threatened or scared by fast-moving objects like cars, bicycles, or skateboards, leading to leash reactivity.
  • Eye contact: Dogs can be sensitive to direct eye contact, which they may perceive as a challenge or threat, causing them to become reactive.

How to stop leash aggression in dogs

When addressing leash reactivity, it’s essential to focus on desensitizing your dog to their triggers and gradually building their confidence.

With patience, consistency, and the right training techniques, you can help your dog overcome leash reactivity and enjoy stress-free walks together.

Desensitization and counter-conditioning

Desensitization and counter-conditioning are essential techniques for managing your dog’s leash reactivity. With desensitization, you’ll gradually expose your dog to their triggers at a low intensity and slowly increase the level until they can cope with full exposure.

Counter-conditioning involves changing your dog’s emotional response to the stimuli. To achieve this, pair their triggers with positive experiences, such as rewards or praise.

For example, begin by training your dog at a distance from their triggers, rewarding them with high-value training treats for remaining calm. As your dog becomes more comfortable, reduce the distance between them and the trigger. Remember to keep a short but loose leash and maintain proximity to prevent any inappropriate behavior.

Leash Reactive Dog pulling on leash

Creating and maintaining thresholds

Creating and maintaining thresholds is crucial to helping your dog remain calm in the presence of other dogs, people, or objects. Identify your dog’s arousal threshold, which is the point at which they start to overreact. Work with your dog just below this threshold, to maintain a state of calm.

If your dog becomes too aroused or over-reactive, increase the distance between them and their trigger to return them to a manageable state. Consider enlisting the help of a professional dog trainer to ensure you’re taking the right approach with your adult dog.

U-turns and body language

Teaching your dog to perform U-turns is an essential technique to manage their leash reactivity. When you notice signs that your dog might react, quickly perform a U-turn to redirect their focus and then reward them for staying calm and focused. This tactic helps avoid situations where their behavior may escalate.

Additionally, pay attention to your dog’s body language as well as your own. Your dog is sensitive to your energy and can feel the tension on the leash, mirroring your anxiety.

Keeping a calm demeanor and a relaxed hold on the leash will help your dog feel more at ease, ultimately reducing their reactivity.

I recommend practicing meditation with your dog at home and while out on walks. It can help keep you both calm and build a stronger bond, in turn creating less anxiety and stress.

Positive Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement is vital in managing leash reactivity, encouraging your dog to exhibit desirable behavior. Whenever your dog behaves appropriately or shows progress in their training, reward them with praise, treats, or play.

It’s important to provide rewards consistently and immediately, so your dog begins to associate the positive experience with their desired behavior.

This method encourages your dog to exhibit appropriate behavior more frequently, thereby reducing their reactivity.

Remember to exercise patience, as building confidence in a leash-reactive dog can take time and consistent reinforcement.

Leashes and Collars for Reactive Dogs

No equipment will resolve your dog’s leash reactivity by itself. It’s essential to use these tools for what they are… tools. Desensitization, counterconditioning, and positive reinforcement are all key in transforming your dog’s leash reactivity.


Any standard leash will work for walking your reactive dog. My favorite is a leather leash or a biothane leash. They both are durable and very comfortable in your hand. 5-6 feet in length is best, this will allow you to give your dog a little space to go potty, but short enough for you to fold in your hand.

Avoid flexi-leashes as they offer no control over your dog and can be dangerous for everyone. Read more about why I never recommend a flexi-leash.

Slip lead leashes are designed to tighten when your dog pulls, providing more control but requiring proper usage to prevent injury.

Gentle Leader

Some people like to use a gentle leader. These tools attach around your dog’s muzzle and help you gently guide their head, allowing for more control over their movements.

I’ve never used a gentle leader but from what I’ve witnessed they aren’t the best solution for a reactive dog.

If you decide to try a gentle leader, it’s crucial to introduce it gradually as most dogs find them very uncomfortable.

Harness Options

I am not a huge fan of harnesses, especially for a leash-reactive dog. Most harnesses do not stop a dog from pulling, in fact, many of them promote pulling.

Don’t agree? Do this experiment… in a fenced yard hold your dog by the chest, have a helper run away, and then excitedly call your dog. Feel the tension? This is a game I teach my dogs to practice their recall command.

The harness works in a similar way, it puts pressure around your dog’s chest instead of their neck.

If you still want to try a harness, then look for a front-clip harness which may be more effective for managing leash reactivity. It may help to redirect your dog’s focus by turning their body towards you when they lunges or pull.

It’s very important that the harness fits properly, as it can cause chafing under the dog’s armpits.

Martingale collar

A properly fitted martingale collar can help prevent your dog from pulling. It works by applying gentle pressure when your dog is pulling.

Prong Collar

The prong collar is a very controversial training tool, but it can be an option for controlling leash-reactive dogs.

A prong collar works by applying even pressure around your dog’s neck when they pull, similar to a martingale collar, but uses prongs.

However, if not used correctly, it can cause injury and may increase your dog’s reactivity instead of decreasing it. It’s essential to consult with a professional trainer before using a prong collar to ensure your dog’s safety and success in modifying their behavior.

Your Stress and Anxiety Level

Acknowledging your own stress and anxiety when dealing with your leash-reactive dog is just as important as training your dog to be calm.

Our dogs feel what we feel. If you go out for a walk and are anxious about what your dog might do, they will feel anxious too… resulting in your dog being leash-reactive. See the connection?

Here are some strategies to help you both stay stress and anxiety-free:

  • Stay calm: Remember that your dog can sense your emotions and will follow your lead. Try to remain calm and collected during walks to help create a relaxed environment for both of you.
  • Breathe: Practice deep breathing exercises to help reduce your anxiety and maintain emotional control.
  • Practice self-compassion: Remind yourself that leash reactivity is a common issue, and it’s okay to feel stressed or overwhelmed by it. Be patient with yourself and your dog as you work through the training process.
  • Maintain a routine: Establish a consistent walking routine to help both you and your dog feel more comfortable and secure.

By implementing these strategies and working on building trust and confidence with your dog, both your stress and your dog’s leash reactivity should start to improve. Remember that progress may be slow and steady, but consistency and patience will ultimately lead to success.

Frequently Asked Questions

Should you walk a leash-reactive dog?

Walking a leash-reactive dog requires special training. Desensitization and counterconditioning techniques can help the dog become more comfortable around triggers. Choose quiet routes and times for walks, utilize training tools, and maintain a safe distance from triggers to minimize stress and potential reactions.

How do you fix a reactive dog on a leash?

To stop leash aggression, you must first identify what triggers your dog. Then work on gradually desensitizing your dog to those triggers. Use counter-conditioning techniques to change their emotional response and reward them for calm behavior. Always stay positive and patient during the training process.

Can a leash-reactive dog be cured?

While there isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution for curing leash reactivity, consistent training, desensitization, and counter-conditioning methods will often significantly reduce the behavior. Individual cases and severity will vary, so results may differ for each dog.

Why is my dog reactive on leash but fine off leash?

Leashes can create a sense of restraint and frustration, limiting a dog’s natural ability to approach or retreat from interactions at their free will. This constraint can lead to reactivity when encountering triggers like other dogs or unfamiliar people.

When off leash, dogs have the freedom to manage their reactions, reducing the feeling of being trapped or restrained.

Think about something you are afraid of… then think how you’d feel if you couldn’t look or walk away from the thing. How would you feel? Anxious, afraid? That’s how your dog feels. Remember, lease reactivity stems from being afraid or anxious.  

Do leash-reactive dogs get better with age?

Leash-reactive dogs do NOT get better with age. The age of your dog has no effect on why they are leash reactive. A 6-month-old puppy can have the same reactions as a 6-year-old dog. It’s important to get help right away, if you ignore your dog’s leash reactivity it will most likely get worse, not better.

What causes a dog to become leash-reactive?

Leash reactivity can be caused by various factors, including fear, anxiety, lack of socialization, and past negative experiences. It’s important to understand the root cause of your dog’s reactivity to help address and manage the problem effectively.

What’s the difference between leash reactivity and aggression?

Reactivity refers to a dog’s overreaction to stimuli, such as lunging, barking, or growling. Aggression is a more severe behavior, where the dog intends to harm or dominate others. Reactivity can sometimes lead to aggression if not addressed, but not all reactive dogs are aggressive.

What’s Next?

About the Author

Debi McKee

Debi McKee is the expert behind Rescue Dogs 101 where she guides you in your journey of adopting and raising a rescue dog every step of the way. She is a mom of 3 human kids and 4 dogs and volunteers for a local dog rescue and Humane Society. Click here for more about Debi and her passion for helping you and your dog.

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  1. Thank you for this insightful and highly informative article. Dealing with a leash-reactive dog can be very challenging for pet owners, and your detailed guide on understanding and managing leash reactivity is a great resource. The step-by-step training tips and the explanation on the importance of positive reinforcement provide a clear pathway toward improving walks with reactive dogs. The personal anecdotes add a nice touch, making the article relatable for readers experiencing similar issues. It’s crucial to have resources like this to help build stronger and healthier relationships between dogs and their owners, making the training process less daunting and more manageable. Keep up the excellent work!

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